Water, Fire, and Air are, as effects, i. e., wholes made up of parts, non- eternal.. Their ultimate atoms which are without parts, are eternal. On the other hand, Ether, Time, Space, Soul, and Mind are without parts, and. therefore oternal. Ether is held to be "nothing- other than the cosmic vacuum (?) which contains all objects, and gives room for their activities". Time and Space are complementary to Ether. The three substances are in reality one only (Prasastapada and Chandra- kanta). Mind, again, is entirely material, and yet capable of coining .into intimate relation with the Soul ; it is as it were a sort of camera obscura to the Soul. In another view, the ultimate atoms are subject to change ; they produce effects ; and themselves undergo changes, but do not initiate changes, except in so far as they reflect themselves in the Mind.