In research, we manipulate variables to find causal effects!
What if we can't manipulate the variables?
Examine relationships without manipulation
High external validity
Reflect real-world conditions
Laptop Usage and Academic Performance
Research using correlational observation
- Spent 37 min per class browsing the Internet for
non-class-related purposes with their laptops.
- Negative correlation between motivation, interest,
- Class-related Internet use was
with a benefit to classroom
62% of students see no
problem with texting in
Ravizza, S., Uitvlugt, M., & Fenn, K. (2016, December 20).
Logged in and zoned out: How laptop internet use ... - sage journals.
Logged In and Zoned Out: How Laptop Internet Use Relates to Classroom Learning.
Martin, D. W. (2007). Doing Psychology Experiments. Cengage Learning.