The emergence of scientific thinking and methodology
The World-view of the Middle Ages
Technological Innovation during
the Middle Ages
-During the first centuries of the Middle Ages, scholars concentrated their intellectual activities mainly on the Christian faith.
-Add fact Scientific issues were hardly ever discussed in depth by the intellectual élite, however. One of the
reasons, according to the modern historian Michael Postan, was that medieval intellectuals simply “had no time for occupations like science.”
-Another reason certainly was that most clerics and scholars of the early Middle Ages did not have access to the vast amount of scientific literature written in Greek before and during the Roman Empire.
-Latin prevailed in Western Christianity, but only very few books written in or translated into Latin contained scientific subject matter.
-One of the few Greek philosophers whose works had been translated into Latin was Plato. For most of the thinkers of the early Middle Ages, Plato’s works provided suitable clues for the view of the natural world in the light of Christianity.
-The view of heaven and earth during the Middle Ages was based upon concepts developed by Aristotle and by the Greek geographer and mathematician Ptolemy.
-In the Middle Ages, the earth was considered to be the stationary center of the universe, with the Sun, the Moon, and the planets turning around it in spheres of their own.
-The four elements to be found on earth (earth, water, fire, and air) were absent from the celestial realm, which was composed of divine ether.