Blue's Personal Gallery

Project 1 [Copy]

Project 1 [Copy]

Published on 26 December 2022
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Linkedin
Transcript
00:11
CHOLERA
00:18
Cholera is an infection that can cause severe diarrhoea
00:20
It is caused by the bacteria vibrio cholerae of the serogroups O1 or O139 and humans are the only relevant reservoir.
00:25
SOURCES OF THE INFECTION: 1.Drinking contaminated water or eating food made with it. 2. Eating raw or undercooked seafood,such as shell fish. 3. Eating raw fruits and vegetables. NOTE: Cholera is not usually transmitted from person to person through casual contact.
00:32
SYMPTOMS:
00:35
The primary symptoms are profuse diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. The symptom usually start suddenly, half a day to five days after ingestion of the bacteria. The diarrhea is called Rice water and may  have a fishy odor.
00:37
Fever is rare and should raise suspicion for secondary infection.  Patient can be lethergic and might have sunken eyes,dry mouth, cold clammy skin or wrinkled hands and feet.
00:44
SYMPTOMS: Kussmaul breathing, a deep and labored breathing pattern can occur because of acidosis from stool bicarbonate losses and lactic acidosis associated with poor perfusion blood pressure drops due to dehydration, peripheral pulse is rapid and thready and urinre output decreases with time, muscle cramping and weakness ,altered consciousness, seizures  or coma due to electrolyte imbalance especially in  children.
00:50
DIAGNOSIS
00:52
1.Stool culture and serogrouping 2.Stool and swab collected in acute stage before antibiotics are most useful specimen.
00:53
3. Polymerase chain reaction 4. Rapid dipstick test  5.Serum electrolytes, blood urea  nitrogen & creatinine should be measured.
00:58
Treatment
00:58
1.Fluid replacement : for hypovolemic &severely dehydrated pts. IV replacement with isotonic fluids should be used. 2. To replace potassium losses, potassium  chloride canbe added to IV solution or  oral potassium  bicarbonate. Once intravascular volume is restored, the  adequacy of hydration should be confirmed  by frequent clinical evaluation (pulse rate, skin tugor, urine output).Plasma volume expanders & vasopressors should nit be used.
01:04
01:05
Oral glucose electrolyte solution is effective in re- placing stool losses and may be used after initial IV rehydration and may be the only means of rehyd- ation in epidemic areas. Solid food should be given only after vomiting stops and appetite returns. 2. Antimicrobials Early treatment with oral microbial eradicates vibrios, reduces stool vol. by 50% and stop diarrhea within 48hrs. Doxycycline is recommended as first line tx for adults abd children. If resistance, azithromycin & ciprofloxacin are alternaive optons.
01:12
Prevention
01:12
01:13
01:13
01:17
For control of cholera, human excrement must be correctly disposed and water supplies purified.. In endemic regions, drinking water should be boiled or chlo- rinated and vegetables and shellfish cooked thoroughly. Antibiotics prophylaxis for househould contacts of pt with cholera is not recommended. VACCINES: lIVE ATTENUATED SINGLE DOSE MONOVALENTVACCINE LYOPHILIZED V. CHOLERAE CVD 103Hgr IS AVAILABLE THREE KILLED WHOLE CELL ORAL VACCINES ARE AVAILABLE .
01:26
THANK YOU AND SUBSCRIBE
01:29
PLEASE SHARE AND LIKE