Presentation by Dineth And Jonny
3 steps of
Step 1: Capturing Solar energy and
transferring that energy to electrons
Step 2: Using the Solar energy that was captured to produce ATP and
transfer high energy electrons to NADP+: yields to NADPH, which is then
used as a high energy electron carrier molecule
Step 3: Using energy stored in ATP and high energy electrons carried
by NADPH in order to form energy rich organic molecules.
(Glucose from Carbon Dioxide).
Final step involves carbon fixation, also known as The
Calvin cycle, involves a large number of light-independent reactions.
Step 1 relies on Light Dependent reactions on 2 distinct but
Interconnected Photosystem I&II. They play a major role in
capturing Solar energy.
Step 2 capture Solar energy through pigments within photosynthesis
now used to form energy-rich molecules, and to make
ATP from ADP and Pi, this involves ETC,
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions, and Chemiosmosis.
The Process of Cellular Respiration is split into two
different types,each includes its own unique stages
(Does not Require Oxygen)
Aerobic Respiration Stage 1: GLYCOLYSIS
This is the first step of cellular respiration. Produces two 3-carbon
pyruvate molecules which is G3P, from a 6-carbon glucose molecule
Produces two net ATP and two NADH molecules.
Requires two ATP molecules to initiate the reaction. This causes glucose to split
into two G3P molecules. G3P then reduces NAD+ into NADH. Through the reaction
above PGA become pyruvate, which is required for the next stage
Aerobic Respiration Stage 2: Pyruvate Oxidation
This stage takes place in the Mitochondrial Matrix where a
carboxyl group is removed from Pyruvate and released as
Carbon Dioxide. The two Carbon molecule from the first stage
is the oxidized molecule, and the NAD+ molecule accepts the
electron to become NADH
Aerobic Respiration Stage 3: KREBS CYCLE
8-step cyclic pathway initiates when
acetyl-CoA releases its CoA, the main
objective of this reaction is produce
even more high- energy compounds
such as NADH & FADH2
Aerobic Respiration stage 4: Electron Transport Chain (ETC) &
The majority of ATP is produced by the ETC. This process
takes place across the inner membrane of the mitochondria
and involves the passing of high-energy electrons
(NADH & FADH2) from carrier to carrier.
Chemiosmosis - Formation of ATP caused
by the movement of H+ ions into the
intermembrane builds up potential energy.
Anaerobic Respiration is mostly present
in environments where oxygen is in short
supply. Organisms that habitat in these
environments have different methods of
Ex: Bacteria & Archaea
Anaerobic Respiration Stage 1: Glycolysis
Glycolysis allows organisms to produce ATP through partial
breakdown of glucose, even if oxygen is not present during
Anaerobic Respiration stage 2: Fermentation
Cells of anaerobic respiration must go through
short periods without oxygen , fermentation is
less effective that anaerobic/aerobic cellular
respiration because this stage produces less
ATP. Which will lead to build-up of harmful